Bozcaada, named "Leukophrys" in ancient times and "Tenedos" in Greek mythology, was invaded many times because of its strategic location.
According to the archeological excavations made in the necropolis of the island, the history of the island dates back 3000 B.C.
Some ancient coins specific to the island having been found, it is presumed that there used to be an important money production facility.
It is estimated that these silver coins had come into use before the Persians and prevailed after them.
There are images of half faces of Zeus and Hera on one side of the coin; a wine glass and a bunch of grapes on the other side.
As the excavations and researches in the necropolis areas of the island are insufficient, there isn't much information about the prehistory of the island.
The oldest graves in the necropolis of the island which was researched in 1959, 1968, 1990-92 by the Çanakkale Museum, are belonging to 3000 B.C.
The necropolis which was used by Greeks and by Ottomans afterwards, was mostly protected till the last decades.
The inhabitants of the island were Pelasgians, Phoenicians, Athenians, Greeks, Persians, Alexander the Great, Byzantines, Genoese, Venetians, Ottomans respectively.
After the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih the Conqueror, Bozcaada gained importance for Turks and was annexed to the Ottoman territories.
After that date there had been wars between Ottomans and Venetia; and the sovereignty of the island changed hands time to time.
The island which was invaded by Greece in 1912 during Balkans War after a long time under the reign of Ottomans, was invaded by French and British forces in the time of the
Dardanelle Wars of the first world war and used as logistic support.
At that time allied forces had built three airfields on the Hill of Ayazma, Habbele Plain and Hill; during the war soldiers were treated and rested in the island.
The island has become a part of Turkey with The Treaty of Lausanne on 20th September 1920.
The first time the island has been mentioned in mythology is the time when it got the name "Tenedos".
It is seen that the name Tenedos was mentioned few times in the Iliad, the famous epic of Homer which was thought to be written in the 9th century B.C. on Trojan War.
Troy is a famous city on the top of the hill which is just across the Bozcaada on the mainland.
The war takes place between Achaeans who came from the Greek peninsula and Trojans who were living in Anatolia.
Achaean fleet under the command of Agamemnon, king of the kings, lands in Tenedos to get supplies.
Achaeans who know that they will not be able to conquer Troy with war prepared a trick.
They gave the impression that they would return back to home and give up the war by giving a huge wooden horse as a present to the Trojans.
Actually, after departing with their ships, they started to wait behind Bozcaada in the region of Ayazma. Trojans accepted the present thinking that it was dedicated to the Gods.
When everybody was sleeping with the tiredness of the war and under the effect of wine drunk during celebrations, hidden Achaean soldiers came out of the horse, conquered
the castle and plundered the city. The island which had an important role in Trojan War keeps its mythological ties even today.